India has established a strong and diversified manufacturing
base for production of a wide variety of basic and capital goods to meet
the requirements of various sectors including heavy electrical, power
generation and transmission, process equipment, automobiles, ships, aircrafts,
mining, chemicals, petroleum etc.
The industrial sector recorded a growth of 9.2 per cent (measured in terms of the Index of Industrial Production) during April-November (2007-08), as compared to growth of 11.6 per cent achieved in the year 2006-07. According to the Index of Industrial Production, capital goods sector posted a growth of 20.8 per cent during April-November (2007-08).
of Heavy Industry (DHI) , in the Ministry of Heavy Industries and
Public Enterprises, is the nodal authority in India for promoting the
growth of the heavy industries. The department is concerned with the development
of the heavy engineering industry, machine tool industry, heavy electrical
industry, industrial machinery and auto-industry. It deals with 19 industrial
sub-sectors, out of which the major ones include:-
- Boilers:- domestic industry has the capacity to meet the indigenous demand for boilers. It has the capacity to manufacture boilers with super critical parameters upto 1,000 MW unit size. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) is the largest manufacturer of boilers in the country accounting for around two-thirds of market share. Expansions are underway to cope up with the country's growth plans.
- Cement Machinery:- there are 18 units in the organized sector for the manufacture of complete cement plant machinery. With an installed capacity of around Rs. 600 crore/annum, the industry is fully capable of meeting the domestic demand. Modern cement plants are designed for zero downtime, high product quality and better output with minimum energy consumed per unit of cement production. The cement plants based on dry processing and pre-calcination technology for capacities upto 7500 TPD are being manufactured in the country.
- Dairy Machinery:- there are 16 units in the organized
sector, both in private and public sector, manufacturing dairy machinery
equipments such as evaporators, milk refrigerators and storage tanks,
milk and cream deodorizers, centrifuges, clarifiers, agitators, homogenisers,
spray dryers and heat exchangers.
- Electrical Furnace:- are used in metallurgical and
engineering industries like forging and foundry, machine tools, automobiles,
etc. Domestically, adequate capacity for production of these products
has been established.
- Material Handling Equipment:- there are 50 units in
the organised sector for the manufacture of material handling equipment.
Besides, there are number of units operating in the small-scale sector.
The industry is self sufficient in meeting domestic demand and is also
capable of meeting the global competition.
- Metallurgical Machinery:- includes equipment for mineral
beneficiation, ore dressing, size reduction, steel plant equipments,
foundry equipments and furnaces. Presently, there are 39 units in the
organized sector engaged in the manufacture of various types of metallurgical
- Mining Machinery:- majority of the requirement for the
mining industry is being met by the indigenous manufacturers. Presently,
there are 32 manufacturers in the organized sector both in public and
private sector for underground and surface mining equipment of various
types. Out of these, 17 units manufacture underground mining equipment.
- Oil Field Equipment:- domestic production covers mainly
the on-shore drilling equipment. Under offshore drilling only offshore
platforms and some other technological structures are being produced
locally. The major producers of these equipments are BHEL, Hindustan
Shipyard, Mazagaon Dock and Larsen & Toubro. Since the opening up
of the petroleum industry in India there is an increase in demand for
the oil field and related equipments.
- Rubber Machinery:- the range of equipments manufactured
in the country includes inter-mixer, tyre curing presses, tube splicers,
bladder curing presses, tyre moulds, tyre building machines, bias cutters, rubber injection moulding machine, bead wires,
etc. There are at present 19 units in the organized sector for the manufacture
of rubber machinery, mainly required for tyre or tube industry.
- Sugar Machinery:- domestic manufacturers occupy predominant position in the global scenario and are capable of manufacturing from concept to commissioning stage sugar plants of latest design for a capacity upto 10,000 TCD (tons crushing per day). Presently, there are 27 units in the organised sector for the manufacture of complete sugar plants and components with an installed capacity of around Rs. 200 crore per annum.
- Turbines & Generator sets:- capacity established for the manufacture of various kinds of turbines such as steam and hydro turbines including industrial turbines is more than 7000 MW per annum. Apart from BHEL which has largest installed capacity, there are units in the private sector engaged in the manufacturing of steam and hydro turbines for power generation and industrial use.
- Machine Tools:- domestic industry has established a sound base and there are about 200 machine tool manufacturers in the organized sector, as also around 400 units in the small ancillary sector. It is also in a position to export general purpose and standard machine tools to industrially advanced countries. The machine tools manufactured meet the international standard of quality/precision and reliability. A number of collaborations have also been approved for bringing in the latest technology in this field.
- Switchgear and Control Gear:- domestically, the entire range of circuit breakers including bulk oil, minimum oil, air blast, vacuum, etc are being manufactured. The range of products so produced cover the voltage range of 240V to 800KV and includes switchgear, control gear, air circuit breakers, switches, rewireable fuses and HRC fuses with their respective fuse bases, holders and starters etc. The present size of the switchgear market is more than Rs. 4000 crores. The industry is competitive in the field of design and engineering as the skill sets available in the country are relatively less expensive.
- Shunting Locomotives:- for the localized and internal
transport facilities are used in railways, steel plants, thermal power
plants, etc. Jhansi Unit of BHEL, among others, is manufacturing such
locomotives. BHEL manufactures complete rolling stock i.e. electric
locomotives upto 5000 HP, diesel electric locomotives from 350 HP to
3100 HP for both mainline and shunting duty applications. Most of the
trains on Indian railways, whether electric or diesel powered are equipped
with BHEL's traction with conventional DC drives and state of the art
- Transformers:- domestic transformers industry is well established with capability to provide state of art equipments. The industry has the capacity to manufacture whole range of power transformers, distribution transformers as well as special types of transformers for welding, traction and furnaces, etc. Energy efficient transformers with low losses and low noise level are also being developed to meet international requirements.
- Textile Machinery:- there are over 600 units engaged
in the manufacture of textile machineries; their components; accessories
and spares. Out of these, about 100 units are manufacturing the complete
textile machinery. The range includes textile machinery required for
sorting, cording, processing of yarns/ fabrics and weaving.
The industries covered by this department provide goods
and services for almost all sectors of the economy, including power, rail
and road transport. The department supports the development of a wide
range of intermediate engineering products like castings, forgings, diesel
engines, industrial gears and gear boxes.
The department administers and monitors the performance of 48 Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) on a regular basis. It acts as a catalyst between these enterprises and other agencies of the Government. It assists them in their effort to improve capacity utilisation, increase profitability, and generate resources. It serves as an interface between PSEs and other agencies for long term policy formulation. It also encourages restructuring of PSEs to make their operations competitive and viable on a long term and sustainable basis. Out of 48 CPSEs under the department, 34 are operating at present and 14 CPSEs are either not in operation or have been closed. The total investment (Gross Block) in 34 Operating CPSEs under the department was about Rs. 9589.30 crore as on 31st March, 2007.
The CPSEs under the department are engaged in manufacture
of engineering or capital goods, consultancy and contracting services.
These enterprises produce a wide range of products ranging from machine
tools, industrial machinery, boilers, gas or steam or hydro turbines,
turbo generators, electrical equipment, railway traction equipment, pressure
vessels, AC locomotives, prime movers, agricultural tractors, consumer
products such as watches, paper, tyres and salt, etc.
The department also maintains a constant dialogue with
various industry associations and encourages initiatives for the growth
of industry. It assists the industry in achievement of their growth plans
through policy initiatives, suitable interventions for restructuring of
tariffs and trade, promotion of technological collaboration and up-gradation,
and research & development, etc.