of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises
is the nodal Ministry for formulation
of policies, programmes and schemes, their implementation and related
co-ordination, for the promotion and development of small scale industries
in India. The role of the Ministry is to assist the States in their efforts
for the growth of the small scale sector, by enhancing their competitiveness
in an increasingly liberalised economy. It is assisted by an attached
office and two public sector enterprise, namely:-
- Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Organisation (MSME-DO) :- the Office of the Development Commissioner (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises) [earlier known as the O/o the DC (SSI)] is also known as Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises-Development Organisation (MSME-DO). It is the apex body for assisting the Government in formulating, coordinating, implementing and monitoring policies and programmes for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in the country. MSME-DO provides a comprehensive range of common facilities, technology support services, marketing assistance, entrepreneurial development support, etc.
Small Industries Corporation Ltd (NSIC) :- was established by the
Government with a view to promoting, aiding and fostering the growth
of micro, small and medium enterprises in the country, with a focus
on commercial aspect of their operations. It implements several schemes
to help the MSMEs in the areas of raw material procurement, product
marketing, credit rating, acquisition of technologies, adoption of improved
management practices, etc.
- Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) :- established under the Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act, 1956, as a statutory organisation engaged in promotion and development of khadi and village industries for providing employment opportunities in the rural areas.
- Coir Board :- is a statutory body, established under the Coir Industry Act, 1953, for the promotion and development of coir industry in India as well as for uplifting the living conditions of the workers engaged in this industry.
Also, a National
Commission on Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector (NCEUS) has been
set up for addressing the wide range of issues affecting the productive
potential of the unorganised micro and small productive units.
Besides, there are three national level 'Entrepreneurship Development Institutes (EDIs)' for the development of training modules,
undertaking research and providing consultancy services for entrepreneurship
development in the small scale sector. These include:-
Small and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006”
is the first single comprehensive legislation in India, covering micro,
small and medium enterprises. Under the Act, the terms "medium sector"
and "micro enterprises" have been defined for the first time.Also,
the concept of ‘Industries’ has been widened to that of ‘Enterprises’.
Enterprises have been classified broadly into two categories, namely,
enterprises engaged in the manufacture/production of goods pertaining
to any industry; and enterprises engaged in providing/rendering of services.
The term "enterprise" has been defined in terms of investment
in plant and machinery/ equipment (excluding land & building). Accordingly,
the definition of micro, small and medium enterprise is:-
||Investment in plant and machinery/ equipment
(excluding land and building)
||Up to Rs. 25 lakh
||Up to Rs. 10 lakh
||More than Rs. 25 lakh and up to Rs. 5 crore
||More than Rs. 10 lakh and up to Rs 2 crore
||More than Rs. 5 crore and up to Rs. 10 crore
||More than Rs. 2 crore and up to Rs. 5 crore
In order to protect, support and promote small enterprises
as also to help them become self-supporting, a number of protective and
promotional policy measures have been undertaken by the Government. The
promotional measures cover:- (i) industrial extension services; (ii) institutional
support in respect of credit facilities; (iii) provision of training facilities;
(iv) supply of machinery on hire-purchase terms; (v) assistance for domestic
marketing as well as exports; (vi) technical consultancy and financial
assistance for technological upgradation; etc.
Policy is the most important policy of the Government for the sector.
It has the twin objectives of ensuring increased production of consumer
goods in the small scale sector; and expanding employment opportunities
through setting up of small scale industries. Reservation of items for
exclusive manufacture in SSI sector is statutorily provided for in the Industries
(Development and Regulation) Act, 1951. The overwhelming consideration for reservation of an item is its suitability and feasibility for being made in the small scale sector without compromising the quality aspect. But, with a view to providing to the sector, opportunities for technological upgradation, promotion of exports and economies of scale, items so reserved have been dereserved from time to time. The issue of reservation/de-reservation of product is examined on a continual basis by an Advisory Committee on Reservation constituted under the Act. During the year 2006-07, 180 items reserved for manufacture in small scale industries have been dereserved. As on 13th March, 2007, 125 items were dereserved and as on 8th February, 2008, 79 more were dereserved. At present, the total number of items reserved for exclusive manufacture in the micro and small scale sector are 35.
Recognising the role of credit for the small scale sector,
a focused credit
policy has been in place since the early days. Priority sector lending
is its most important component. Under it, banks are compulsorily required
to ensure that defined percentage of their overall lending is made to
the priority sectors, which includes small industries. As a part of the
institutional arrangement, Small
Industries Development Bank of India ( SIDBI ) has been set up as
the apex refinance bank. Term loans are provided by State Financial Corporations
(SFCs) and Scheduled
The other important policies for the sector relate to:-
duty; (ii) foreign
direct investment approval;and labour
Besides, several schemes and programmes have been undertaken
by the Government with the aim of facilitating access to:- (i) adequate
credit from financial institutions; (ii) funds for technology upgradation
and modernisation; (iii) integrated infrastructural facilities; (iv) modern
testing facilities and quality certification laboratories; (v) modern
management practices, entrepreneurship development and skill upgradation
through appropriate training facilities; etc. The schemes so announced
Small Industry Development Organisation also operates a
number of schemes for the sector:-
National Small Industries Corporation Ltd (NSIC) schemes
for small scale industries relate to:-
- Bill Financing
- Working Capital Finance
- Export Development Finance
- Equipment Leasing Scheme
- Raw Materials Procurement Support
- Marketing Assistance Programme and Exports Assistance;
- Stores Purchase Programme
- Single Point Registration Scheme and other services.