The horticulture sector of India, in 2005-06, contributed
around 28 per cent of GDP in agriculture and the production of horticultural
crops registered an increase of 8.9 per cent. Growth in production decelerated
to 2.8 per cent in 2006-07, mainly because of the decline in the production
of onions and a stagnation in the production of spices. Vegetables, fruits,
plantation crops and spices contributed to 59.8 per cent, 30.9 per cent,
6.5 per cent and 2.1 per cent of total horticulture production, respectively,
|All India Area and production
of horticulture crops
(Area-'000 hectare, Production-'000 tonnes)
|Total Horticulture Crops
(Source: Horticulture Division, Department of Agriculture
India is the largest producer of mango, banana, sapota and
acid lime. About 39.5 per cent of the worlds mangos and 11 per cent
of worlds bananas are produced in India. In grapes, India has the
highest productivity per unit area in the world. India is next only to
China in area and production of vegetables and occupies prime position
in the production of cauliflower, second in onions and third in cabbage
in the world.
India has also made noticeable advancement in the production
of flowers. During 2006-07, the country produced 669000 of metric tonnes
of loose and 27.23 million cut flowers from an area of 1.40 lakh hectares.
Further, India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices
and spice products. The total estimated production of spices during 2005-06
was 4.86 million metric tonnes and the area covered was 3.20 million hectares.
India is also largest producer and consumer of cashewnuts.
For the holistic development of the horticulture sector,
the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation has launched the National
Horticulture Mission (NHM), which aims at doubling horticultural production
by 2012. Under the NHM, action plans for 18 States, 2 Union Territories
and 10 national level agencies have been approved during 2006-07. An amount
of Rs. 560.29 crore has been released up to December 11, 2006. In 2005-06
and 2006-07, against a release of Rs. 1,575.30 crore, an expenditure of
Rs. 1,018.40 crore was incurred by the States and National level agencies.
An outlay of Rs. 1,150 crore was earmarked for the implementation of the
scheme during 2007-08. Against this, an amount of Rs. 691 crore has been
released till the end of January, 2008.
While, under the 'Technology Mission for Integrated Development
of Horticulture in North-Eastern States, Sikkim, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal
Pradesh and Uttarakhand', in the current fiscal year 2007-08, Rs. 323.40
crore has been earmarked, of which Rs. 227.40 crore
is for the North-Eastern States and Rs. 96 crore for Jammu and Kashmir,
Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. An amount of Rs. 210.64 crore has been
released till the end of January 2008. The achievements made under the
- 97503 hectares of additional area have been brought
under different horizontal crops.
- The area covered under fruits, vegetables and spice crops
are 50667 ha, 16252 ha and 20262 ha, respectively.
- An area of 5858 ha has been covered under high value
crops like medicinal and aromatic plants and flowers.
- 17353 women entrepreneurs were trained on different aspects
- Infrastucture facilities for production of quality planting
material such as establishment of 420 nurseries, 3055 community water
tanks, adoption of drip irrigation in 2121 ha were undertaken.
Besides, the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation has
taken the initiative to promote modern 'Terminal Markets' for fruits,
vegetables and other perishables in important urban centres of the country
to provide the state-of-the-art infrastructure facilities for electronic
auction, cold chain and logistics, and operation through conveniently
located primary collection centres. These terminal markets are envisaged
to operate on a hub-and-spoke format wherein the terminal
market (the hub) would be linked to a number of collection centres (the
spokes), conveniently located in key production centres to allow easy
access to farmers for the marketing of their produce. They are to be built,
owned and operated by a corporate/private/ cooperative entity. This entity
could be a consortium of entrepreneurs from agri-business, cold chain,
logistics, warehousing, agri infrastructure and related background. The
Central/State Government lend support to the initiative by providing financial
support to the project by way of equity participation up to a maximum
of 49 per cent determined through a competitive bidding process. Andhra
Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan,
Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Nagaland and the Union Territory of Chandigarh
have identified land for setting up terminal markets.