Business risks are of a diverse nature and arise due to innumerable factors. These risks may be broadly classified into two types, depending upon their place of origin.
- Internal Risks are those risks which arise from the events taking place within the business enterprise. Such risks arise during the ordinary course of a business. These risks can be forecasted and the probability of their occurrence can be determined. Hence, they can be controlled by the entrepreneur to an appreciable extent.
The various internal factors giving rise to such risks are:-
- Human factors are an important cause of internal risks. They may result from strikes and lock-outs by trade unions; negligence and dishonesty of an employee; accidents or deaths in the industry; incompetence of the manager or other important people in the organisation, etc. Also, failure of suppliers to supply the materials or goods on time or default in payment by debtors may adversely affect the business enterprise.
- Technological factors are the unforeseen changes in the techniques of production or distribution. They may result in technological obsolescence and other business risks. For example, if there is some technological advancement which results in products of higher quality, then a firm which is using the traditional technique of production might face the risk of losing the market for its inferior quality product.
- Physical factors are the factors which result in loss or damage to the property of the firm. They include the failure of machinery and equipment used in business; fire or theft in the industry; damages in transit of goods, etc. It also includes losses to the firm arising from the compensation paid by the firm to the third parties on account of intentional or unintentional damages caused to them.
- External risks are those risks which arise due to the events occurring outside the business organisation. Such events are generally beyond the control of an entrepreneur. Hence, the resulting risks cannot be forecasted and the probability of their occurrence cannot be determined with accuracy.
The various external factors which may give rise to such risks are :-
- Economic factors are the most important causes of external risks. They result from the changes in the prevailing market conditions. They may be in the form of changes in demand for the product, price fluctuations, changes in tastes and preferences of the consumers and changes in income, output or trade cycles. The conditions like increased competition for the product, inflationary tendency in the economy, rising unemployment as well as the fluctuations in world economy may also adversely affect the business enterprise. Such risks which are caused by changes in the economy are known as 'dynamic risks'. These risks are generally less predictable because they do not appear at regular intervals. Also, such risks may not necessarily result in losses to the firm because they may also contain an element of gain for the firm. For instance, due to market fluctuations,a well known product of a firm may either lose its demand or may occupy a larger market share.
- Natural factors are the unforeseen natural calamities over which an entrepreneur has very little or no control. They result from events like earthquake, flood, famine, cyclone, lightening, tornado, etc. Such events may cause loss of life and property to the firm or they may spoil its goods. For example, Gujarat earthquake caused irreparable damage not only to the business enterprises but also adversely affected the whole economy of the State.
- Political factors have an important influence on the functioning of a business, both in the long and short term. They result from political changes in a country like fall or change in the Government, communal violence or riots in the country, civil war as well as hostilities with the neighbouring countries. Besides, changes in Government policies and regulations may also affect the profitability and position of a enterprise. For instance, changes in industrial policy and Trade policy annual announcement of the budget amendments to various legislations, etc. may enhance or reduce the profits of a business enterprise.
Thus, business risk takes a variety of forms. In order to face such risks successfully, every businessman should understand the nature and causes of these risks as well as the various measures which must be taken in order to minimise them.