Keeping in view the various issues and problems involved in land acquisition, resettlement and rehabilitation, a wide variety of steps are being taken by both the Central and State/ Union Territory (UT) Governments, from time to time, so as to promote overall development of Indian economy. There is a separate Department named 'Department of Land Resources
' which have been set up in the Ministry of Rural Development
so as to accelerate the pace of development of wastelands and degraded lands. For proper implementation of activities in order to reclaim wastelands in the country, the 'Wastelands Atlas
' has been prepared which enable mapping/ identification of wastelands and their location upto village and micro-watershed level. Several studies, programmes and schemes are also running for preventing degradation of lands.
The 'capacity building' is considered a crucial area for achieving better land resource management. It is a continuous process which enables functionaries to enhance their knowledge, skills and attitudes, thereby becoming more effective in performing their roles and responsibilities. Along with Centre and State, it is also the responsibility of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) at the Gram Panchayat, intermediate panchayat and Zila Parishad to take effective steps, with a view to protect the land/ properties in the country and check for proper implementation of Acts, rules and policies at their levels. The role of NGOs cannot be underestimated in capacity building and implementation.
The 'Land Reforms Division' in the Department of Land Resources is acting as the nodal agency for formulating the policy/ legislation on the 'Resettlement and Rehabilitation' of project affected persons or families. In this, steps are taken to develop principle of rehabilitation before displacement and if possible, provide land for land as compensation. It also includes provision of housing benefits to all affected families, including the landless as well as of necessary infrastructure facilities at resettlement areas.
Further, Ministry of Urban Development is also making considerable efforts to generate proper housing and infrastructure facilities so as to solve problem of land acquisition and resettlement. Along with public sector, it is also the responsibility of private sector to look into land matters. In case any industry acquires land, the Government should act as the nodal agency and set broad guidelines for the purpose. There can be a good case for promoting public-private partnership in the land/ property matters.