Social Security is increasingly viewed as an integral
part of the development process because it helps to create a more positive
attitude to the challenge of globalisation and the consequent structural
and technological changes. It envisages that the employees shall be protected
against all types of social risks that may cause undue hardships to them
in fulfilling their basic needs. The workers do not have enough financial
resources to face such risks arising due to sickness, accidents, old age,
diseases, unemployment, etc. and also do not have alternative source of
livelihood to help them in the period of adversity. Hence, it becomes
the obligation of the State to help the workers by providing them the
social safety cover. This fact has been recognised by our policymakers
and accordingly, the matters relating to social security are listed in
the Directive Principles of State Policy and the Concurrent List.
Under Directive Principles of State Policy:-
- Article 41 provides for right to work, to education
and to public assistance in certain cases. It means, the State shall,
within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective
provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public
assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement,
and in other cases of undeserved want.
- Article 42 provides for just and humane conditions
of work and maternity relief. It means, the State shall make provision
for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.
The social security issues mentioned in the Concurrent
List of the Constitution of India are:-
- Social Security and insurance, employment and unemployment.
- Welfare of Labour including conditions of work, provident
funds, employers' liability, workmen's compensation, invalidity and
old age pension and maternity benefits.
Thus, the provision for social security has occupied a
very important place in our industrial set up. The 'State' bear the primary
responsibility for developing an appropriate system for protecting and
assisting its workforce. This system includes various legislations, policies
and schemes which provide different types of social security benefits
to the workers. It may also include payment of compensation by the employer
to the employees for injuries sustained by them in the course of their
employment. Hence, Ministry
of Labour and Employment has set up a Social
Security Division which deals with framing and implementation of social
security policy and schemes for the workers as well as administration
of all the legislations relating to social security.