Training the newly recruited employees is the next important step in the human resource management process. Systematic and scientific training is the cornerstone of a sound manpower management. Training is the process of increasing the knowledge, skills , aptitude and abilities of an employee for doing the specific job in an efficient manner. It implies imparting technical knowledge, manipulative skills, problem solving ability and positive attitude into the employee. The resources used up in human resource training is an investment in human assets and the skills acquired in the process is an advantage for both the enterprise and the employees.
The purpose of training is to enable the employees to get acquainted with their present and prospective jobs. It makes new employees more productive and efficient in the minimum of time and makes the old employees familiar with new machines and techniques by refreshing their knowledge. The need for formal and systematic training has increased because of the rapid technological changes which create new job opportunities. These new jobs demand certain special skills that need to be developed in all employees through appropriate and best operating methods.
The main advantages of training are:-
- Higher Performance:- training helps to improve the quantity and quality of work output,increase knowledge,skills,productivity of both employees and an organisation as a whole.
- Lesser learning period:- it helps to reduce the learning time and cost required to reach the acceptable level of performance.The employees need not waste time in learning through trial or error or by observing others.
- Uniformity of procedures:- through it,the best available methods of performing the work can be standardised and taught to all employees,which helps to improve the quality of performance.
- Manpower development:- it enables organisation to fill manpower needs and thus face the difficulties and overcome defects involved in selection process. Under it, promising employees can be spotted and trained for higher level jobs and thus provides a reservoir of competent replacements and prevents managerial obsolescence.
- Economy of materials and equipment:- it helps trained employees to make better and economical use of materials and equipment,thus wastage will be low. Also,the rate of industrial accidents and damages to machinery and equipment will be minimum. This in turn will lead to low cost of production per unit.
- Less supervision:- it reduces the need for detailed and constant supervision of workers by making them self-reliant in their work as they know what to do and how to do it.
- High Morale:- it helps to improve the employees' job satisfaction,morale,developing in them positive attitude,making them more cooperative and loyal to the organisation.It enables them to utilise and develop their full potential.With improvement in industrial discipline and relations,rates of absenteeism and labour turnover are reduced.
- Participative Management:- it facilitates delegation and decentralisation of authority. Training is an adjunct of the management process.Trained employees are willing to accept new and challenging assignments. The stability and flexibility of the organisation is also improved.
But training is effective only when it is properly planned and effectively executed. Training methods must be appropriate to the level of employees,the nature of tasks and the purpose of training. Some of the important methods of training are:-
- On-the-job training :- Under it the worker is trained by his/her immediate supervisor at the workplace. This training is relatively cheap and less time consuming and no separate equipment and accommodation is required for it. This is called as 'learning by doing' process of training.It may take any one or more of the following forms,namely- Coaching(procedure by which superior teaches job knowledge and skills to a subordinate in a job routine); Under-study (under this,the trainee is designated as the heir-apparent to his boss and his future depends on the fate of his boss); or Job rotation (trainee is periodically rotated from job to job instead of sticking to one,so as to broaden his general background in various job positions).
- Vestibule training :- Under this method, employees are trained in a special training centre(vestibule), which is a replica of the actual work conditions of the workplace. The training is provided by qualified instructors under a carefully controlled learning conditions. It may be called as 'learning before doing' process. It is suitable when a large number of people are to be trained at the same time and for the same kind of work.Such a training method is less-time consuming and does not interfere with regular process of production.Under it,trainees are not under any pressure of the work situation and thus,can fully concentrate on learning process.
- Apprenticeship training :- Under it the trainees serve as apprentices and some stipend is paid to them during the training period.They also acquire valuable skills which carry a high price in the labour market.Under it,the trainee is placed under the supervision of an experienced person who teaches him the necessary skills and observes his performance.Such training is desirable in industries which require constant flow of new and cheap employees expected to become all-round craftsmen.
- Classroom training :- Under it theoretical instructions are provided to the trainees through the joint efforts of the employers and the educational institutions. The main purpose of the special courses is to provide advanced knowledge in specific areas for the effective performance of the particular job. Employers send their employees for training to the technical or vocational training institutes.Special courses are designed to fill the needs of organisation and lecture method is used for instruction.Such a training is suitable where depth knowledge,concept clarity,problem-solving ability are required to be learned.
Since training is an on-going process,the effectiveness of a training programme should be evaluated so that necessary improvements may be made in it from time to time.This training process continues as long as the organisation remains in the business.